Reading children with an underdevelopment of the speech is characterized by also slow rate as they often get stuck on reading separate words, often come back to repeated reading separate letters, separate parts of the word or the whole word in order that it is correct to correlate a letter to the corresponding sound or to comprehend the readable.
The ideas of children of sound structure of the word are poorer, the reading shortcomings as dependence between recognition of a syllable or the word and distinction of the sounds which are their part is shown are found more strongly.
The offer on specially picked up picture or on basic words is formed. The rule is given: The first word in the offer is written from capital letter at the end of the offer the end is put. The scheme of the offer is drawn.
Now is conventional that between an underdevelopment of the speech and violation of reading there is a close interrelation. Children with the general underdevelopment of the speech — it is special category of preschool children with insufficient prerequisites for training in reading. Today very much requirements to the children coming to the first class increased. Programs of training are complicated and saturated various material which has to be acquired through reading. The child going to mass school from logopedic group with the diagnosis the general underdevelopment of the speech experiences difficulties in training in reading. Not at all schools of the city children can continue occupations at the logopedist as there is no wide network of the school logopedic help. Therefore the problem of prevention of a dyslexia is extraordinary, important and necessary today.
It is natural that when training in reading there will be many mistakes caused by shortcomings of a pronunciation and inability to analyze sound structure of the word – replacements, admissions, shifts of letters and syllables, and sometimes and rough distortion read.
We read the text written on the poster. With red color the first letters of offers and a point are allocated. A pointer we show the beginning and the end of offers. We define number of offers in the story. We read the text, observing pauses after each offer. After, children independently read and define number of offers in the text.
In oral speech of children most shortcomings of a pronunciation of sounds, the vague, greased pronunciation of words and distortion of their syllabic structure considerably act. Shortcomings of a lexicon and a grammatical system usually are less noticeable as children try to use only well familiar words expressions.
It is undoubted that at the described children of violation of reading are connected with insufficiency of ideas of zvuko-alphabetic structure of the word. The sound image of a syllable or the word which arose at the child in the course of such reading is learned not at once. So there is a reading on a guess with frequent replacement of one word with another. Also such mistakes in reading as repeated repetition of separate letters or syllables, admissions, shifts, replacements, etc. that leads quite often to distortion read, to the wrong understanding and causes sharply slow rate of reading are explained by it.
Difficulties and mistakes first of all are connected with insufficient mastering of the word sound structure, mixture of acoustic similar sounds, inferiority of the sound analysis and synthesis. It involves inability to recreate the correct and exact sound form of the word in the conditions of visually perceived graphic signs.
Children with an underdevelopment of the speech do when reading and such mistakes which are characteristic for children with normal speech development. But the quantity of these mistakes at the first will be considerable big, than at the second. Here it is possible to carry mistakes on admissions or additions of letters, shifts, the wrong termination of words.
The sound analitiko-synthetic method of training in the diploma, is the basic in the prevention of a dyslexia. Putting it into practice, results of correction of the phonetic party of the speech (See the appendix considerably improve: Dynamics of development of the phonetic party of the speech).